Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine-induced PI3K/Akt signaling inhibition promotes foam cell apoptosis and atherosclerosis progression.


Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212001, China. Electronic address: [Email]


Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are closely associated with diabetic macrovascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Nε-Carboxymethyl-Lysine (the key active component of AGEs) in diabetic atherosclerosis on foam cell apoptosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Tissue sections were collected from 12 Type 2 diabetic patients and 4 control patients who underwent amputation surgery following a car accident. Peritoneal injection of streptozotocin in ApoE-/- mice was used to generate a diabetic model in vivo, and Raw 264.7 cells treated with CML and 740Y-P (a PI3K/AKT signaling agonist) were used to explore the effect of PI3K/AKT signaling in CML-induced foam cell apoptosis in vitro. The anterior tibial section of diabetic amputees contained a thinner fiber cap, higher lipid content, and more apoptotic cells than were found in control patients. in vitro studies using Raw 264.7 cell-derived foam cells and in vivo studies using diabetic ApoE-/- mice showed that CML levels dose-dependently reduced cell vitality, induced foam cell apoptosis and regulated apoptosis related protein. Furthermore, CML significantly decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT signaling, and restoration of PI3K/AKT signaling by 740Y-P decreased the CML-induced foam cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our results showed CML induced foam cell apoptosis in diabetic atherosclerosis through inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway.


Apoptosis,Atherosclerosis,Foam cell,Nε-Carboxymethyl-Lysine,PI3K/AKT,