Nanocellulose production from recycled paper mill sludge using ozonation pretreatment followed by recyclable maleic acid hydrolysis.


Department of Biology and Environment, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa-Oranim, Tivon 3600600, Israel. Electronic address: [Email]


Nanocellulose (NC) have garnered much interest worldwide due to its physical and chemical properties. Nanocellulose is produced from biomass materials by bleaching pretreatment, followed by acid hydrolysis. This work demonstrated the production of NC from recycled paper sludge (RPS), a crystalline cellulose rich waste, by ozonation pretreatment, followed by maleic acid hydrolysis. Ozonation resulted in removal of lignin (as evident by TGA analysis), negative zeta potential of RPS and enhanced NC production, from 60 mg/L to over 80 mg/L after 60-120 min of ozone treatment. Maleic acid was successfully recovered, although longer ozonation times reduced the amount of acid available for recovery. These results demonstrate that ozonation can be used as an effective pretreatment for NC production.


Acid recycling,Green engineering,Lignin removal,Nanocellulose,Ozonation,Recycled paper sludge (RPS),

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