Nanocelluloses (NCs) are bio-based nano-structurated products that open up new solutions for natural material sciences. Although a high number of papers have described their production, properties, and potential applications in multiple industrial sectors, no review to date has focused on their possible use in cementitious composites, which is the aim of this review. It describes how they could be applied in the manufacturing process as a raw material or an additive. NCs improve mechanical properties (internal bonding strength, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and modulus of rupture (MOR)), alter the rheology of the cement paste, and affect the physical properties of cements/cementitious composites. Additionally, the interactions between NCs and the other components of the fiber cement matrix are analyzed. The final result depends on many factors, such as the NC type, the dosage addition mode, the dispersion, the matrix type, and the curing process. However, all of these factors have not been studied in full so far. This review has also identified a number of unexplored areas of great potential for future research in relation to NC applications for fiber-reinforced cement composites, which will include their use as a surface treatment agent, an anionic flocculant, or an additive for wastewater treatment. Although NCs remain expensive, the market perspective is very promising.