Naproxen ecotoxicity and biodegradation by Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) strain.


Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland. Electronic address: [Email]


High level of naproxen consumption leads to the appearance of this drug in the environment but its possible effects on non-target organisms together with its biodegradation are not well studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate naproxen ecotoxicity by using the Microbial Assay for Risk Assessment. Moreover, Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) was tested for both ecotoxicity and the ability of this strain to degrade naproxen in cometabolic conditions. The results indicate that the mean value of microbial toxic concentration estimated by MARA test amounts to 1.66 g/L whereas EC50 of naproxen for B1(2015b) strain was 4.69 g/L. At toxic concentration, Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) showed 16:0 iso 3OH fatty acid presence and an increase in the ratio of total saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. High resistance of the examined strain to naproxen correlated with its ability to degrade this drug in cometabolic conditions. The results of bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) revealed that naproxen at concentrations above 1 g/L showed genotoxic effect but the response was not dose-dependent. Maximal specific naproxen removal rate was observed at pH 6.5 and 30 °C, and in the presence of 0.5 g/L glucose as a growth substrate. Kinetic analysis allowed estimation of the half saturation constant (Ks) and the maximum specific naproxen removal rate (qmax) as 6.86 mg/L and 1.26 mg/L day, respectively. These results indicate that Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) has a high ability to degrade naproxen and is a potential tool for bioremediation.