Negative verbal self-relevant feedback is recognized with greater accuracy than facial feedback regardless of depression or social anxiety.


University of Ottawa, School of Psychology, 136 Jean-Jacques Lussier Private, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address: [Email]


Self-referent information is critical for navigating the social realm, as we constantly use both verbal and non-verbal feedback in our interactions to understand ourselves and the world. In non-clinical samples, a memory bias for positive self-referent information has been observed, while a negativity bias has been observed among those with depression and anxiety. While research suggests that visual and auditory information is processed differently, no study has yet examined if memory biases persist for self-referent information presented by either means. We examined differences in memory for self-relevant social information presented as verbal or facial feedback, and whether symptoms of depression or anxiety influence memory for such information. We predicted that participants would remember more positive feedback overall, and that depression and anxiety would be positively related to memory for negative items.


Depression,Memory,Self-referential information,Social anxiety,