Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

Affiliation

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population; however, its effect on high-risk patients with prevalent coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. We hypothesized "double jeopardy," whereby the association between nSES and adverse outcomes would be greater in high-risk patients with heart failure (HF) and/or previous myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those without. We followed 3,635 patients (mean age 63.2 years, 42% with HF, 25% with previous MI) with known or suspected CAD over a median of 3.3 years for all-cause death and cardiovascular death or nonfatal MI. Patients were categorized by a composite nSES score, and proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between nSES and outcomes. Cross-product interaction terms for previous MI × nSES and HF × nSES were analyzed. Compared with high nSES patients, low nSES patients had increased risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 2.15) and cardiovascular death or MI (subdistribution HR [sHR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.30, 2.54). Associations were more pronounced among patients without HF or previous MI. Low nSES patients without HF had a higher risk of all-cause death (HR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.41, 3.65) compared with those with HF (HR = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.77, P interaction = 0.04). Similarly, low nSES patients without previous MI had a higher risk of cardiovascular death or MI (sHR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.73, 4.28) compared with those with previous MI (sHR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.58, 1.81, P interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, low nSES was independently associated with all-cause death and cardiovascular death or MI in patients with CAD; however, associations were greater in patients without HF or previous MI compared with those with HF or MI.