Neuroprotective effect of Reinwardtia indica against scopolamine induced memory-impairment in rat by attenuating oxidative stress.

Affiliation

Department of Pharmaceutical, Engineering and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 221005, India. [Email]

Abstract

Reinwardtia indica belongs to Linaceae family and used as a folk medicine in Asian countries. Traditionally, it has been used in the treatment of paralysis and anti-microbial in wound healing, etc. The current study was undertaken in order to investigate the antioxidant and memory protective effect of the alcoholic (99.90%) (AERI) and hydro-alcoholic (70:30) leaves extract (HAERI) of Reinwardtia indica, against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in animals and also tried to determine the possible mechanism of action. In addition, phytochemical profiling of alcoholic leaves extract was also conducted through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Rats were pretreated with AERI, HAERI (dose 250 and 500 mg/kg) and Donepezil (standard drug) along with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days followed by different test like elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze to assess learning and memory ability. Acetylcholine levels, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT & GSH), histopathology of the brain and biochemical test were also performed at the end of the treatment period. The scopolamine treatment resulted in learning and memory deficits which were partially and significantly ameliorated by the AERI at higher dose among other doses of extracts. The AERI at higher dose also counteracted the scopolamine-induced decrease in acetylcholine levels, increase in AChE activity, and decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities. No significant changes observed in the biochemical estimation of all dose of extracts. Histology of brain tissue showed the marked cellular changes in only scopolamine treated group while the standard, AERI and HAERI treated group were showing less damage at hippocampus region of the brain. The phytochemicals found after chemical profiling through GC-MS also supported the activity because of the presence of chemicals already reported for the neuroprotective, memory-enhancing and antioxidant activity, etc. The results demonstrated that the ability of the AERI at higher dose among all doses of extracts has more potential to revert the scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits in rats by attenuating the decreased level of acetylcholine and antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords

AERI,Antioxidant,Elevated plus maze,GC-MS,Morris water maze,Passive avoidance,Scopolamine,

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