OBJECTIVE : Ischemic-hypoxic insult leads to detrimental effects on multiple organs. The brain is especially vulnerable, and it is hard to regenerate once damaged. Currently, therapeutic options are very limited. Previous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of neurotropin, a non-protein extract derived from the inflamed skin of rabbits inoculated with vaccinia virus, using a murine model of peripheral nerve injury and cultured cell lines. However, whether neurotropin might have protective effects against brain injuries remains unclear. We, therefore, investigated the neuroprotective effect of neurotropin and possible underlying mechanisms, using a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. METHODS : Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury was induced via a combination of the left common carotid artery occlusion and exposure to hypoxic environment (8% oxygen) in adult male C57BL/6 mice. Immediately following induction of hypoxia-ischemia, mice received either saline or 2.4 units of neurotropin. The survival rate, neurological function, infarct volume, and expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. RESULTS : Compared to the control group, the neurotropin group exhibited a significantly higher survival rate (100% vs. 62.5%, p < 0.05) and lower neurological deficit scores (1; 0-2 vs. 3; 0-5, median; range, p < 0.05) after the hypoxic-ischemic insult. The administration of neurotropin also reduced infarct volume (18.3 ± 5.1% vs. 38.3 ± 7.2%, p < 0.05) and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSIONS : The post-treatment with neurotropin improved survival and neurological outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic insult. Our results indicate that neurotropin has neuroprotective effects against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines.