New advances on the Brettanomyces bruxellensis biofilm mode of life.

Affiliation

Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR A 02.102, Laboratoire VAlMiS-IUVV, Dijon, France. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis can be found at several steps in the winemaking process due to its resistance to multiple stress conditions. The ability to form biofilm is a potential resistance strategy, although it has been given little attention so far for this yeast. In this work, the capacity to form biofilm and its structure were explored in YPD medium and in wine. Using microsatellite analysis, 65 isolates were discriminated into 5 different genetic groups from which 12 strains were selected. All 12 strains were able to form biofilm in YPD medium on a polystyrene surface. The presence of microcolonies, filamentous cells and extracellular polymeric substances, constituting the structure of the biofilm despite a small thickness, were highlighted using confocal and electronic microscopy. Moreover, different cell morphologies according to genetic groups were highlighted. The capacity to form biofilm in wine was also revealed for two selected strains. The impact of wine on biofilms was demonstrated with firstly considerable biofilm cell release and secondly growth of these released biofilm cells, both in a strain dependent manner. Finally, B. bruxellensis has been newly described as a producer of chlamydospore-like structures in wine, for both planktonic and biofilm lifestyles.

Keywords

Brettanomyces,Chlamydospore,Microcolonies,Spoilage microorganism,Wine,

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