BACKGROUND : Puberty can be considered the end point of a maturation process which is defined by the dynamic interactions of genes and environmental factors during prenatal and postnatal development. Kisspeptin/G protein-coupled receptor-54, is as an essential gatekeeper and regulator of GnRH neurons, and a key factor in initiation of puberty. Loss and gain of functional mutations in the GPR54 gene are associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and precocious puberty, respectively. This study was designed to evaluate variations of GPR54 in familial precocious puberty. METHODS : Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood of 25 subjects with familial precocious puberty. Coding exons 1-5 of the GPR54 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were purified and sequenced. DNA sequences were compared to the human GenBank GPR54 sequence using Sequencher sequence alignment software. RESULTS : We detected three different Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in GPR54: rs10407968 (24A > T) in 13 subjects (52%); rs3050132 (1091 T > A) in 16 subjects (64%), and a novel polymorphism (492C > G) in one subject (4%), while three subjects (12%) had no SNPs. No mutations were found in the GPR54 gene. CONCLUSIONS : Regarding the presence of SNPs in 88% of the subjects in this study, it is likely a relationship exists between the SNPs of the GPR54 gene and familial precocious puberty. Further research is needed to investigate this possibility, and potential functional effects of these polymorphisms.