Novel centrally active oxime reactivators of acetylcholinesterase inhibited by surrogates of sarin and VX.

Affiliation

Center for Environmental Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, United States of America. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

A novel oxime platform, the substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes (US patent 9,227,937), was invented at Mississippi State University with an objective of discovering a brain-penetrating antidote to highly potent organophosphate anticholinesterases, such as the nerve agents. The goal was reactivation of inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase to attenuate the organophosphate-induced hypercholinergic activity that results in glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity and neuropathology. The currently approved oxime antidote in the US, 2-PAM, cannot do this. Using highly relevant surrogates of sarin and VX that leave acetylcholinesterase phosphylated with the same chemical moiety as their respective nerve agents, in vitro screens and in vivo tests in rats were conducted to identify the most efficacious members of this platform. The most promising novel oximes provided 24-h survival of lethal level surrogate exposure better than 2-PAM in almost all cases, and two of the oximes shortened the time to cessation of seizure-like behavior while 2-PAM did not. The most promising novel oximes attenuated neuropathology as indicated by immunohistochemical stains for both glia and neurons, while 2-PAM did not protect either glia or neurons. These results strongly suggest that these novel oximes can function within the brain to protect it, and therefore show great promise as potential future nerve agent antidotes.

Keywords

Brain penetration,Neuropathology protection,Neuroprotection,Nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate (NIMP),Oxime,Seizure-like behavior cessation,

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