Omics analysis reveals variations among commercial sources of bovine milk fat globule membrane.

Affiliation

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a glycosylated, protein-embedded, phospholipid fraction that surrounds triglycerides in milk. Commercial bovine sources have recently come to the market as a novel food ingredient and have been added to various products, including infant formula. Considering that MFGM is a heterogeneous mixture of fat, protein, and carbohydrate, it can be expected that variations among MFGM products exist. For this reason, our aim was to characterize the composition of commercial MFGM samples through a combination of proteomic and lipidomic analyses. Six bovine milk fractions, represented as MFGM fractions or phospholipid fractions, were obtained from various commercial sources. Additionally, the MFGM samples were compared with 2 infant formulas, a standard formula as well as a premium formula containing MFGM. For proteomic analysis, bottom-up data-dependent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on each MFGM fraction, and nearly a thousand proteins were identified across all samples, with 364 of them having different abundance across the samples tested. One hundred twelve proteins differed by a fold-change of 10 or greater, 14 by a fold-change of 50, and 2 by a fold-change of 100 in at least 1 pair, suggesting large differences in the proteins present in these fractions. Even though the classical MFGM proteins were enriched in the MFGM fractions, the relative protein composition varied considerably, and all contain an abundance of milk (casein and whey) proteins. Lipidomic analysis identified a total of 393 lipid species across both positive and negative ionization modes, with the major classes detected being triglycerides, sphingomyelins, and several phospholipids. Across all samples, triglycerides comprised at least 50% of total lipids, with phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin being the second and third most abundant lipid classes, respectively. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of various bovine commercial MFGM fractions. This variation must be considered when evaluating and describing potential functional benefits of these products shown in clinical trials.

Keywords

bovine serum concentrate (BSC),commercial product,milk fat globule membrane (MFGM),phospholipid,sialic acid,

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