With an excellent near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive property, polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticle has emerged as a promising NIR photothermal transducing agent for tumor photothermal therapy (PTT). Herein, we reported the PVP mediated one-pot synthesis of colloidal stable and biocompatible PPy nanoparticles (PPy-PVP NPs) for combined tumor photothermal-chemotherapy. The influence of molecular weight and PVP concentration on the spectroscopic characteristic, photothermal feature, drug loading performance, and antitumor efficiency of the resultant PPy-PVP NPs was systematically studied. By choosing PVP with a molecular weight of 360 kDa (concentration of 5 mg/mL) as the template and surface modifier during the synthesis, PPy-PVP NPs with optimal spectroscopic characteristic, photothermal feature, drug loading performance, and antitumor efficiency were synthesized. Findings in this study are anticipated to provide an in-depth understanding of the important character of surface engineering in the rational design and biomedical applications of PPy NPs.