Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto. Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, School of Graduate Studies, University of Toronto. Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Biophotonics and Bioengineering Laboratory, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: [Email]
Computer-assisted three-dimensional navigation often guides spinal instrumentation. Optical topographic imaging (OTI) offers comparable accuracy and significantly faster registration relative to current navigation systems in open posterior thoracolumbar exposures. We validate the usefulness and accuracy of OTI in minimally invasive spinal approaches.