Biomass Conversion Area (BCA), Materials Resource Efficiency Division (MRED), CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP), Dehradun 248005, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi, India. Electronic address: [Email]
Castor plant (Ricinus communis) is a fast-growing shrub from Euphorbiaceae family. India ranks first in the world for the production of castor seeds. The generation of residue from its leaves and stems is more than 50% of the whole plant. This research work involves the estimation of the optimum condition for the production/value addition by hydrothermal liquefaction of castor residue using factorial design. Temperature (T) and residence time (RT) are the key parameters that affect the bio-oil yield. A 32 full factorial design was employed to understand the affects the bio-oil yield and conversion with key parameters. The key parameter and its interaction effects were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA); F-test and p-values were used to rank the process variable affecting the total bio-oil yield. It was observed that the temperature imparts significant effect on total bio-oil yield. The optimum conditions to obtain maximum total bio-oil yield are T = 300 °C and RT = 60 min. The statistical model was best fitted with high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9994 and 0.9473 for total bio-oil yield and conversion respectively.