Optimization of the Photon Path Length Probability Density Function-Simultaneous (PPDF-S) Method and Evaluation of CO₂ Retrieval Performance Under Dense Aerosol Conditions.


National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan. [Email]


The photon path length probability density function-simultaneous (PPDF-S) algorithm is effective for retrieving column-averaged concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO₂) and methane (XCH₄) from Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) spectra in Short Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR). Using this method, light-path modification attributable to light reflection/scattering by atmospheric clouds/aerosols is represented by the modification of atmospheric transmittance according to PPDF parameters. We optimized PPDF parameters for a more accurate XCO₂ retrieval under aerosol dense conditions based on simulation studies for various aerosol types and surface albedos. We found a more appropriate value of PPDF parameters referring to the vertical profile of CO₂ concentration as a measure of a stable solution. The results show that the constraint condition of a PPDF parameter that represents the light reflectance effect by aerosols is sufficiently weak to affect XCO₂ adversely. By optimizing the constraint, it was possible to obtain a stable solution of XCO₂. The new optimization was applied to retrieval analysis of the GOSAT data measured in Western Siberia. First, we assumed clear sky conditions and retrieved XCO₂ from GOSAT data obtained near Yekaterinburg in the target area. The retrieved XCO₂ was validated through a comparison with ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements made at the Yekaterinburg observation site. The validation results showed that the retrieval accuracy was reasonable. Next, we applied the optimized method to dense aerosol conditions when biomass burning was active. The results demonstrated that optimization enabled retrieval, even under smoky conditions, and that the total number of retrieved data increased by about 70%. Furthermore, the results of the simulation studies and the GOSAT data analysis suggest that atmospheric aerosol types that affected CO₂ analysis are identifiable by the PPDF parameter value. We expect that we will be able to suggest a further improved algorithm after the atmospheric aerosol types are identified.


aerosols,carbon dioxide (CO2),greenhouse gases observing satellite (GOSAT),photon path length probability density function (PPDF),retrieval,short wavelength infrared (SWIR),