Optimizing Epicardial Restraint and Reinforcement Following Myocardial Infarction: Moving Towards Localized, Biomimetic, and Multitherapeutic Options.


Harvard-MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. [Email]


The mechanical reinforcement of the ventricular wall after a myocardial infarction has been shown to modulate and attenuate negative remodeling that can lead to heart failure. Strategies include wraps, meshes, cardiac patches, or fluid-filled bladders. Here, we review the literature describing these strategies in the two broad categories of global restraint and local reinforcement. We further subdivide the global restraint category into biventricular and univentricular support. We discuss efforts to optimize devices in each of these categories, particularly in the last five years. These include adding functionality, biomimicry, and adjustability. We also discuss computational models of these strategies, and how they can be used to predict the reduction of stresses in the heart muscle wall. We discuss the range of timing of intervention that has been reported. Finally, we give a perspective on how novel fabrication technologies, imaging techniques, and computational models could potentially enhance these therapeutic strategies.


biomimetics,infarct reinforcement,ventricular restraint,