Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) is an important zoonotic disease, which is endemic in Brazil and several other parts of the world. The disease may affect multiple organs, but lesions in the oral cavity are considered uncommon. Twenty-three cases of oral lesions compatible with CVL were diagnosed from 2015 to 2018 in the Federal District, Brazil. Six cases were confirmed to be CVL based on histopathology, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction amplification of Leishmania infantum kDNA. Most of the affected dogs were >9 years of age, of mixed breed and were classified as having stage C of the disease. The most important gross findings were ulcerated nodular lesions in the tongue, lip, gingiva and hard palate. Microscopically, there was lymphoplasmacytic to granulomatous inflammation that was diffuse, moderate to severe and associated with ulceration. CVL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodular and ulcerative oral lesions in dogs.