Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants, plasticizers and defoamers and their exposure are likely associated with a number of adverse effects in humans. In this study, tris(chloroethyl) phosphate and thirteen OPE metabolites including six hydroxylated OPEs (HO-OPEs) were analyzed in 46 urine samples, collected from 8 provinces located across different regions in China. 1-Hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP) and 2-hydroxyethyl bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEHEP) were major metabolites of their parent compounds with detection frequencies of 54.3%-89.1%, which were all higher than their corresponding OPE diesters (2.2%-6.5%). The urine-based estimated daily intake (EDI) of OPEs ranged from 0.06 ng/kg·bw for tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) to 273 ng/kg·bw for 2-ethylhexyl phenyl phosphate. Analyzed with concentrations in paired dust samples, dust exposure to OPEs and their diesters may explain 0.28%-23.8% of the urine-based EDI of OPEs and the contribution of dust TBOEP was the highest. Although direct exposure to OPE diesters in dust showed a minor contribution, their intake via food and drinking water may account for a larger portion of urinary OPE metabolites. Overall, the hazard quotients of four OPEs indicated no immediate exposure risk for the investigated Chinese residents but the cumulative and long-term chronic effects involving exposure to other OPEs and OPE diesters are worth further concerns.