International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, and School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; International Joint Research Center for Arctic Environment and Ecosystem (IJRC-AEE), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, and School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; University Corporation for Polar Research, Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address: [Email]
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are widely added to consumer products and building materials, which may pose potential health risk to humans. But information on their contamination and human exposure in the indoor environment especially dormitories in northern China is rare. In this study, twelve OPFRs were investigated in college dormitory dust that collected from Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in northern China. Indoor dust samples were also collected from homes and public microenvironments (PMEs) in Harbin for comparison. The median ∑OPFR concentrations in dormitory dust in Shenyang samples (8690 ng/g) were higher than those in Baoding (6540 ng/g) and Harbin (6190 ng/g). The median ∑OPFR concentrations in home dust (7150 ng/g) were higher than in dormitory and PME dust (5340 ng/g) in Harbin. Tris(2‑chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) were the most abundant chlorinated OPFRs, while triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and tris(2‑butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were the dominant non-chlorinated OPFRs. The daily intakes of ∑OPFR were estimated, with the median values for female students (2.45 ng/kg-day) higher than those for male students (2.15 ng/kg-day) while were similar to adults (2.45 ng/kg-day) in homes. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of these OPFRs from indoor dust in Harbin were all below the recommended values. The calculated non-carcinogenic hazard quotients (10-8-10-3) from OPFRs were much lower than the theoretical risk threshold. Meanwhile, carcinogenic risk (CR) of tri‑n‑butyl phosphate (TNBP), TCEP, tris(2‑ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), and tris(1,3‑dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) were also estimated. The highest carcinogenic risk of TCEP for gender-specific and age-specific category range from 1.75 × 10-7 to 2.46 × 10-7 from exposure to indoor dust indicated a low potential carcinogenic risk for human exposure.