Osseointegration and current interpretations of the bone-implant interface.

Affiliation

Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Complex physical and chemical interactions take place in the interface between the implant surface and bone. Various descriptions of the ultrastructural arrangement to various implant design features, ranging from solid and macroporous geometries to surface modifications on the micron-, submicron-, and nano- levels, have been put forward. Here, the current knowledge regarding structural organisation of the bone-implant interface is reviewed with a focus on solid devices, mainly metal (or alloy) intended for permanent anchorage in bone. Certain biomaterials that undergo surface and bulk degradation are also considered. The bone-implant interface is a heterogeneous zone consisting of mineralised, partially mineralised, and unmineralised areas. Within the meso-micro-nano-continuum, mineralised collagen fibrils form the structural basis of the bone-implant interface, in addition to accumulation of non-collagenous macromolecules such as osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin. In the published literature, as many as eight distinct arrangements of the bone-implant interface ultrastructure have been described. The interpretation is influenced by the in vivo model and species-specific characteristics, healing time point(s), physico-chemical properties of the implant surface, implant geometry, sample preparation route(s) and associated artefacts, analytical technique(s) and their limitations, and non-compromised vs compromised local tissue conditions. The understanding of the ultrastructure of the interface under experimental conditions is rapidly evolving due to the introduction of novel techniques for sample preparation and analysis. Nevertheless, the current understanding of the interface zone in humans in relation to clinical implant performance is still hampered by the shortcomings of clinical methods for resolving the finer details of the bone-implant interface. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Being a hierarchical material by design, the overall strength of bone is governed by composition and structure. Understanding the structure of the bone-implant interface is essential in the development of novel bone repair materials and strategies, and their long-term success. Here, the current knowledge regarding the eventual structural organisation of the bone-implant interface is reviewed, with a focus on solid devices intended for permanent anchorage in bone, and certain biomaterials that undergo surface and bulk degradation. The bone-implant interface is a heterogeneous zone consisting of mineralised, partially mineralised, and unmineralised areas. Within the meso-micro-nano-continuum, mineralised collagen fibrils form the structural basis of the bone-implant interface, in addition to accumulation of non-collagenous macromolecules such as osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin.

Keywords

Biomineralisation,Bone quality,Bone-implant interface,Implant design,Osseointegration,Osteocyte,