Osteonecrosis in pediatric cancer survivors: Epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment.


Division of Orthopaedic Oncology, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: [Email]


Several treatment regimens for childhood malignancies have been associated with the development of osteonecrosis, including radiation therapy, glucocorticoid medications, immunotherapy (including anti-angiogenic agents), and several chemotherapeutic agents. Adolescents older than 10 years are at greatest risk of developing osteonecrosis within 1 year of initiating therapy. Screening with magnetic resonance imaging in this high-risk population may be a useful method for detecting osteonecrosis. Surgery may be required for lesions that have progressed substantially despite nonoperative interventions.


Chemotherapy,Late effects,Osteonecrosis,Pediatric cancer,Radiation,