Department of Urologic Surgery, University of California Davis, 4860 Y Street, Suite 2200, Sacramento, CA 95817; UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Davis, 2279 45(th) Street, Sacramento, CA 95817; VA Northern California Health Care System, Sacramento, 10535 Hospital Way, Mather, CA 95655. Electronic address: [Email]
Castration-resistant prostate cancer remains as an incurable disease. Exploiting DNA damage repair defects via inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is becoming an attractive therapeutic option. The TOPARP-A clinical trial demonstrated that the PARP inhibitor olaparib may be an effective strategy for treating prostate cancer. However, several unanswered questions regarding the use of olaparib remain: 1) How do we best stratify patients for olaparib treatment? 2) Where do we place olaparib in the treatment sequence paradigm? 3) Is there cross-resistance between olaparib and currently used therapies? Here, we tested putative cross-resistance between current therapies and olaparib in treatment-resistant castration-resistant prostate cancer models. Docetaxel-resistant cells exhibited robust resistance to olaparib which could be attributed to blunted PARP trapping in response to olaparib treatment. Upregulated ABCB1 mediates cross-resistance between taxanes and olaparib, which can be overcome through decreasing ABCB1 expression or inhibiting ABCB1 using elacridar or enzalutamide. We also show that combining olaparib with enzalutamide is more effective in olaparib-sensitive cells than either single agent. Our results demonstrate that cross-resistance between olaparib and other therapies could blunt response to treatment and highlight the need to develop strategies to maximize olaparib efficacy.