Department of Pharmacology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China; Key Laboratory of Cellular Physiology, Ministry of Education, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China. Electronic address: [Email]
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) plays a crucial role in the endocrine system. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of PACAP38 on insulin secretion and the underlying mechanism in rat pancreatic β-cells. The insulin secretion results showed that PACAP38 stimulated insulin secretion in a glucose- and dose-dependent manner. The insulinotropic effect was mediated by PAC1 receptor, but not by VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors. Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A suppressed PACAP38-augmented insulin secretion. Glucose-regulated insulin secretion is dependent on a series of electrophysiological activities. Current-clamp technology suggested that PACAP38 prolonged action potential duration. Voltage-clamp recordings revealed that PACAP38 blocked voltage-dependent potassium currents, and this effect was reversed by inhibition of PAC1 receptor, adenylyl cyclase, or protein kinase A. Activation of Ca2+ channels by PACAP38 was also observed, which could be antagonized by the PAC1 receptor antagonist. In addition, calcium-imaging analysis indicated that PACAP38 increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which was decreased by PAC1 receptor antagonist. These findings demonstrate that PACAP38 stimulates glucose-induced insulin secretion mainly by acting on PAC1 receptor, inhibiting voltage-dependent potassium channels, activating Ca2+ channels and increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Further, PACAP blocks voltage-dependent potassium currents via the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A signaling pathway.