PD-L1 knockdown via hybrid micelle promotes paclitaxel induced Cancer-Immunity Cycle for melanoma treatment.


Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, No. 17, Block 3, Southern Renmin Road, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address: [Email]


The Cancer-Immunity Cycle is a series of anticancer immune responses initiated and allowed to proceed and expand iteratively. Paclitaxel (PTX) is a classic chemotherapeutic agent, which could induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) to trigger the Cancer-Immunity Cycle. However, the Cycle is severely impaired by tumor cell immunosuppression of host T cell antitumor activity through the programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) (PD-1/PD-L1) immune checkpoint pathway. Here, we demonstrated that PTX mediated the Cancer-Immunity Cycle could be enhanced by PD-L1 knockdown (KD) and followed mTOR pathway inhibition in tumor cells. PD-L1 siRNA (siP) and the hydrophobic chemotherapy drug PTX were co-delivered with a rationally designed hybrid micelle (HM). We showed clear evidence that the HM-siP/PTX is capable of delivering siP and PTX simultaneously to the B16F10 cells both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that HM-PTX/siP reduced the expression of PD-L1 and p-S6K (a marker of mTOR pathway activation) both in vitro and in melanoma-bearing mice and attenuated synergistically tumor growth by chemical toxicity, promoting cytotoxic T-cell immunity and suppressing the mTOR pathway.


Cancer-Immunity Cycle,Immunogenic cell death (ICD),PD-L1 knockdown,mTOR pathway,siRNA delivery,