PD-L1 protein expression in non-small-cell lung cancer and its relationship with the hypoxia-related signaling pathways: A study based on immunohistochemistry and RNA sequencing data.


Department of Pathology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: [Email]


Therapies that target programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promising efficacy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hypoxia-related genes are also important regulators of PD-L1, and the role of PD-L1 in NSCLC is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate PD-L1 expression and its correlation with hypoxic-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) expression in NSCLC patients. The association between PD-L1 expression and survival was also determined.


Carbonic anhydrase 9,Glucose transporter 1,Hypoxic-inducible factor 1α,Non-small-cell lung cancer,Programmed death-ligand 1,Vascular endothelial growth factor A,