Palmatine: A review of its pharmacology, toxicity and pharmacokinetics.


School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, PR China. Electronic address: [Email]


Palmatine is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid and has been widely used in pharmaceutical field. The purpose of this review is to provide the latest and comprehensive information on the pharmacology, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of palmatine in the past, to explore the therapeutic potential of this compound and look for ways to reduce toxicity. Information on palmatine was collected from the internet database PubMed, Elsevier, ResearchGate, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and Europe PMC using a combination of keywords including "pharmacology", "toxicology", "pharmacokinetics". All studies of this genus were included in this review until March 2019. Palmatine has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotection, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and regulating blood lipids. However, palmatine has obvious DNA toxicity, and has a complex effect on metabolic enzymes in the liver. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that glucuronidation and sulfation are the main metabolic pathways of palmatine. Palmatine can be used in many diseases. Future research directions include: how the concentration of palmatine affects pharmacological effects and toxicity; the mechanism of synergy between palmatine and other protoberberine alkaloid; Structural modification of palmatine is one of the key methods to enhance pharmacological activity and reduce activity.