Paraspinal muscle ladybird homeobox 1 (LBX1) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a cross-sectional study.


Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: [Email]


Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the leading cause of spinal deformity in adolescents globally. Recent evidence from genome-wide association studies has implicated variants in or near the ladybird homeobox 1 (LBX1) gene, encoding the ladybird homeobox 1 transcription factor, in AIS development. This gene plays a critical role in guiding embryonic neurogenesis and myogenesis and is vital in muscle mass determination. Despite the confirmation of the role for LBX1 gene variants in the development of AIS, the biological basis of LBX1 contribution to AIS remains mostly unknown.


Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,ICONS study,ladybird homeobox 1,paraspinal muscle,