In western countries, lower back pain (LBP) is one of the most common disorders, experienced by more than 80% of the population. Chronic LBP due to disc degeneration has been linked to ongoing inflammatory processes in the disc and endplates. Pain effects the body in different ways, inducing a general stress response in which the body responds by releasing the stress hormone cortisol. Little is known about the impact of pain-induced stress on the progression of disc degeneration. Thus, the effects of cortisol on disc cells (DCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were explored in vitro with the objective of investigating the repercussions of cortisol on these cell types involved in de- and regenerative mechanisms of the disc. DC and hMSC pellet cultures were exposed to cortisol at two concentrations (150 and 300 ng/mL) for 28 days to simulate pain-induced stress. Cell viability, histological staining, and GAG DNA, along with apo-ptotic assays were conducted. Detection of OCT4, SOX9, IL-1R, and CXCR2 expressions was performed by immunohistochemistry. With cortisol treatment, restricted cell proliferation and less GAG production in both DCs and hMSCs were observed. Suppression of the differentiation and immunomodulatory efficacy of hMSCs was also detected. Moreover, elevated expressions of IL-1R and CXCR2 were detected in both cell types. To conclude, constant exposure to cortisol even at a physiological level enhanced pathological cellular processes in both DCs and hMSCs, which further jeopardized chondrogenesis. This suggests that cortisol resulting from pain-induced stress is a contributing component of intervertebral disc degeneration and may negatively affect regenerative attempts of the disc.