CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were fabricated on two types of TiO2 photoanodes, namely nanosheets (NSs) and nanoparticles. The TiO2 NSs with high (001)-exposed facets were prepared via a hydrothermal method, while the TiO2 nanoparticles used the commercial Degussa P-25. It was found that the pore size, specific surface area, porosity, and electron transport properties of TiO2 NSs were generally superior to those of P-25. As a result, the TiO2 NS-based CdS/CdSe QDSSC has exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 4.42%, which corresponds to a 54% improvement in comparison with the P-25-based reference cell. This study provides an effective photoanode design using nanostructure approach to improve the performance of TiO2-based QDSSCs.