Bioretention systems have been found to be potential candidates for the removal of various pollutants/nutrients from rainfall or stormwater runoff. Despite bioretention has been widely developed for the removal of nutrients from stormwater, effective removal of both phosphorus and nitrogen is still a challenge. Hence, in this study, bioretention systems modified by alkaline solid waste media have been reported for the effective removal of nutrients. Six different types of solid wastes were first assessed using leaching and adsorption tests, and then the bottom ash from a refuse incineration plant was selected as a modifier. The bottom ash was mixed with soil to form a special media as the filter layer in the bioretention systems. The nutrient removal efficiencies of the modified bioretention systems were evaluated and also compared with those of the unmodified control. For this purpose, the design of the modified filter media with a saturated zone was combined to enhance the simultaneous removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. The effect of different rainfall intensities and nutrient concentrations in stormwater runoff on the removal efficiency of nutrients was evaluated. The results indicated that the modified bioretention with bottom ash modified soil media and saturated zone could exhibit the excellent removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus from stormwater runoff. The extent of removal of total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus was found to be 58-70%, 66-82% and 82-97%, respectively. The performed correlation analysis showed that the bioretention cell using the special media could simultaneously enhance the removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. As a part of this study, the adsorption isotherms of phosphorus removal by the modified bioretention systems have also been determined. Finally, the implications and opportunities for deploying modified bioretention systems for optimizing water-energy nexus and stormwater management were illustrated. In overall, this study demonstrated that the modified bioretention systems could substantially enhance the removal efficiencies of nutrients from stormwater runoff.