Periprosthetic biomechanical response towards dental implants, with functional gradation, for single/multiple dental loss.

Affiliation

Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012, Karnataka, India; Translational Center on Biomaterials for Orthopaedic and Dental Applications, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012, Karnataka, India. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The differences in shape and stiffness of the dental implants with respect to the natural teeth (especially, dental roots) cause a significant alteration of the periprosthetic biomechanical response, which typically leads to bone resorption and ultimately implant loosening. In order to avoid such clinical complications, the implant stiffness needs to be appropriately adapted. In this study, hollow channels were virtually introduced within the designed implant screws for reduction of the overall stiffness of the prototype. In particular, two opposing radial gradients of increasing hollow channel diameters, i.e., outside to inside (Channel 1) and inside to outside (Channel 2) were considered. Two clinical situations of edentulism were addressed in this finite element-based study, and these include a) loss of the first molar, and b) loss of all the three molars. Consequently, two implantation approaches were simulated for multiple teeth loss - individual implantation and implant supported dental bridge. The effects of implant length, approach and channel distribution on the biomechanical response were evaluated in terms of the von Mises stress within the interfacial periprosthetic bone, under normal masticatory loading. The results of our FE analysis clearly reveal significant variation in periprosthetic bone stress between the different implant designs and approaches. An implant screw length of 11 mm with the Channel 2 configuration was found to provide the best biomechanical response. This study also revealed that the implant supported dental bridge approach, which requires lower bone invasion, results in favorable biomechanical response in case of consecutive multiple dental loss.

Keywords

Dental bridge,Finite element,Implant,Stress/strain,