Novel polymeric flame retardants based on two acrylamides and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) or 5,5-dimethyl-[1,3,2]dioxaphosphinane-2-oxide (DDPO) are described for several applications in HexFlow® RTM6, a high-performance epoxy resin. Neat resin samples and carbon fiber-reinforced composites were tested for their glass transition temperatures (dynamic mechanical analysis), thermal stability (thermogravimetric analyses), flammability (UL94) and flame-retardant performance (Cone Calorimetry). Additionally, the fiber degradation occurring during combustion of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy resins was observed by scanning electron microscopy to show the fiber protecting effect of these flame retardants. Whereas DOPO-containing polyacrylamides acting mainly in the gas phase showed the best flame retardant efficiency, DDPO-containing polyacrylamides acting mainly in the condensed phase showed the best fiber protection. A mixed polyacrylamide was synthesized to combine these effects. This thermoplastic is soluble in the resin and, therefore, suitable for injection molding processes. Interlaminar shear strength measurements showed no negative effect of the flame retardant. The versatility of these flame retardants is shown by investigations dealing with boehmite as synergist in neat resin samples.