Amphiphilic cellulose derivatives were synthesized from allyl cellulose (AC) and cystein (Cys)/n-dodecyl mercaptan (NDM) via the thiol-ene click reactions. The derivatives were self-assembled into micelles in distilled water, and the micelles sizes increased with an increase of the DSNDM. The amphiphilic cellulose micelles were served as the soft templates for the controllable synthesis of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) through the photo-reduction. Ag NPs were embedded and stabilized by the amphiphilic cellulose micelles, and their sizes increased from 3.1 to 14.4 nm with an increase of the original template sizes. The catalytic properties of the Ag-loaded micelles were evaluated by the reduction of p-nitropheonl to p-aminophenol. The results demonstrated that the Ag-loaded micelles exhibited excellent catalytic activity. The reduction followed the first-order rate law, and the reaction constant decreased with increasing size of Ag NPs. Moreover, the Ag-loaded micelles displayed good antimicrobial activities to both S. aureus and E. coli. Therefore, the Ag-loaded cellulose-based micelles have potential applications in various fields.