Physical Radiation Enhancement Effects Around Clinically Relevant Clusters of Nanoagents in Biological Systems.


The University of Manchester The Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Westlakes Science & Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3HA, UK. [Email]


Here we show that the determining factor for physical radiation enhancement effects for a clinically realistic cluster of heavy-atom bearing nanoparticles is the total number of heavy atoms packed into the cluster. We do this through a multiscale Monte Carlo approach which permits the consideration of radiation transport through clusters of millions of nanoparticles. The finding is in contrast to that predicted when isolated nanoparticles are considered and is a direct consequence of the Auger electrons playing less of a role for clusters compared to isolate nanoparticles. We further show that this result is agnostic to selection of the subcellular region considered to be sensitive to the effects of radiation, provided the inside the cluster of nanoparticles is not considered to be biologically active.