Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and uses of Indian traditional medicinal plant Kaempferia galanga L. - An overview.

Affiliation

Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, 249404, Uttarakhand, India. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : Kaempferia galanga L. is a stemless, rhizomatous, aromatic, perennial and indigenous herb. It is native to India and distributed in China, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Laos, Sudan, Nigeria and South Africa. It is an important Indian medicinal herb that has a long history of use in the treatment of several kinds of human ailments including vata ailments like cough and cold, fever, headache, pains disorders, skin diseases, rheumatic diseases, arthritis, joint fractures, vertigo, wounds, gastritis, antidote for snake venoms, inflammation, blood vomiting, mouth sores and tongue blisters in infants. Moreover, the rhizomes of this plant are highly aromatic and have been used widely as spices, in food flavoring, pickles, cosmetics and in perfumery products.
OBJECTIVE : This paper aimed to provide a critical review of current scenario on K. galanga. This review provides a current data on diversity, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of K. galanga.
METHODS : The information and data on K. galanga were collated from various resources like ethnobotanical textbooks and literature databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, Springer, Tailor and Francis, Scopus, Inflibnet, Google and Google Scholar.
RESULTS : The forty-nine phytochemicals including esters, terpenoids, diarylheptanoids, flavonoids, phenolic glycoside, polysaccharides, phenolic acids and benzoic acids have been hitherto isolated and characterized. The major bioactive compounds extracted from the rhizome of K. galanga were ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, ethyl cinnamate, kaempferol, kaempferide, kaempsulfonic acids, kaemgalangol A, xylose, cystargamide B and 3-caren-5-one. Various studies demonstrated that the K. galanga and its constituents possess several pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, amebicidal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tuberculosis, anti-dengue, antiangiogenic, anti-nociceptive, anticancer, cytotoxicity, hyperlipidemic, hypopigmentary, osteolysis, larvicidal, insecticidal and mosquito repellent, nematocidal, sedative, sniffing, vasorelaxant and wound healing.
CONCLUSIONS : Kaempferia galanga L. is a valuable medicinal plant which is used traditionally in India to treat a wide variety of ailments. A number of bioactive phytochemicals like esters, terpenoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, diarylheptanoids, cyclic lipodepsipeptide, phenolic acids and glucoside have been isolated from the rhizomes of K. galanga by several researchers. These phytochemicals are highly bioactive and exhibit various pharmacological activities. However, more studies are required to recognize the effectiveness of these bioactive compounds and to understand their molecular mechanisms.

Keywords

Kaempferia galanga L.,Pharmacological activities,Phytochemistry,Traditional uses,

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