Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan; Institute of Horticultural Biotechnology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China. Electronic address: [Email]
Ascorbic acid-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle represents important antioxidant defense system in planta. Here we utilized Oncidium cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (OgCytAPX) as a model to demonstrate that CytAPX of several plants possess dual catalytic activity of both AsA and GSH, compared with the monocatalytic activity of Arabidopsis APX (AtCytAPX). Structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis identified that three amino acid residues, Pro63, Asp75, and Tyr97, are required for oxidization of GSH in dual substrate catalytic type. Enzyme kinetic study suggested that AsA and GSH active sites are distinctly located in cytosolic APX structure. Isothermal titration calorimetric and UV-visible analysis confirmed that cytosolic APX is a heme-containing protein, which catalyzes glutathione in addition to ascorbate. Biochemical and physiological evidences of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OgCytAPX1 exhibits efficient reactive oxygen species-scavenging activity, salt and heat tolerances, and early flowering, compared with Arabidopsis overexpressing AtCytAPX. Thus results on dual activity CytAPX impose significant advantage on evolutionary adaptive mechanism in planta.