Plastomes resolve generic limits within tribe Clusieae (Clusiaceae) and reveal the new genus Arawakia.

Affiliation

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Clusieae is an exclusively Neotropical tribe in the family Clusiaceae sensu stricto. Although tribes within Clusiaceae are morphologically and phylogenetically well-delimited, resolution among genera within these tribes remains elusive. The tribe Clusieae includes an estimated ∼500 species distributed among five genera: Chrysochlamys, Clusia, Dystovomita, Tovomita, and Tovomitopsis. In this study, we used nearly complete plastid genomes from 30 exemplar Clusieae species representing all genera recognized, plus two outgroups to infer the phylogeny of the tribe using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference. For comparison, we also inferred a phylogeny from the nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region using the same methods. Our study corroborates earlier findings that Clusia is monophyletic while Tovomita is not. It also provides additional support to the hypothesis that Chrysochlamys and Tovomitopsis are not closely related despite gross morphological similarity. Tovomita is divided into three distantly related clades: (i) core Tovomita (including the type T. guianensis), (ii) T. croatii, and (iii) the T. weddelliana species complex. Members of the T. weddelliana complex are isolated from the core Tovomita, and placed in a well-supported clade that is sister to a clade composed of Chrysochlamys plus Clusia. Tovomita croatii is nested within Chrysochlamys. We propose taxonomic revisions to accommodate our phylogenetic findings, including the description of the new genus Arawakia, which includes the 18 species formerly recognized in the T. weddelliana species complex. Lectotypes are also designated for nine species (i.e., Arawakia angustata, A. lanceolata, A. lingulata, A. longicuneata, A. macrocarpa, A. oblanceolata, A. pithecobia, A. rhizophoroides, and A. weddelliana), and a taxonomic key for the identification of the six genera of Clusieae recognized is presented.

Keywords

Chrysochlamys,Clusioid clade,Next-generation sequencing,Tovomita weddelliana,rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer,

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