Pollution characteristics, sources, and health risk assessments of urban road dust in Kuala Lumpur City.

Affiliation

Centre for Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. [Email]

Abstract

Urban road dust contains anthropogenic components at toxic concentrations which can be hazardous to human health. A total of 36 road dust samples from five different urban areas, a commercial (CM), a high traffic (HT), a park (GR), a rail station (LRT), and a residential area (RD), were collected in Kuala Lumpur City followed by investigation into compositions, sources, and human health risks. The concentrations of trace metals in road dust and the bioaccessible fraction were determined using inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) while ion concentrations were determined using ion chromatography (IC). The trace metal concentrations were dominated by Fe and Al with contributions of 53% and 21% to the total trace metal and ion concentrations in road dust. Another dominant metal was Zn while the dominant ion was Ca2+ with average concentrations of 314 ± 190 μg g-1 and 3470 ± 1693 μg g-1, respectively. The most bioaccessible fraction was Zn followed by the sequence Sr > Cd > Cr > Cu > Ni > Co > Mn > As > V > Pb > Fe > Al > U. The results revealed that the highest trace metal and ion concentrations in road dust and in the bioaccessible fraction were found at the LRT area. Based on the source apportionment analysis, the major source of road dust was vehicle emissions/traffic activity (47%), and for the bioaccessible fraction, the major source was soil dust (50%). For the health risk assessments, hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk (CR) values for each element were < 1 and in the tolerable range (1.0E-06 to 1.0E-04), except for As for the ingestion pathway. This result suggests a low risk from non-carcinogenic and probable risk from carcinogenic elements, with higher health risks for children compared to adults.

Keywords

Bioaccessibility,Chemical composition,Health risk assessment,Road dust,Source apportionment,

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