Pore geometry influences growth and cell adhesion of infrapatellar mesenchymal stem cells in biofabricated 3D thermoplastic scaffolds useful for cartilage tissue engineering.

Affiliation

Martínez-Moreno D(1), Jiménez G(1), Chocarro-Wrona C(1), Carrillo E(1), Montañez E(2), Galocha-León C(3), Clares-Naveros B(3), Gálvez-Martín P(4), Rus G(5), de Vicente J(6), Marchal JA(7).
Author information:
(1)Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada
(ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine Institute
(IBIMER), Centre for Biomedical Research
(CIBM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Excellence Research Unit "Modeling Nature"
(MNat), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
(2)Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Virgen de la Victoria University Hospital, 29010 Málaga, Spain.
(3)Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
(4)Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; R&D Human Health, Bioibérica S.A.U., Barcelona E-08029, Spain.
(5)Excellence Research Unit "Modeling Nature"
(MNat), University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Structural Mechanics, University of Granada, Politécnico de Fuentenueva, Granada E-18071, Spain.
(6)Excellence Research Unit "Modeling Nature"
(MNat), University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]
(7)Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada
(ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine Institute
(IBIMER), Centre for Biomedical Research
(CIBM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Excellence Research Unit "Modeling Nature"
(MNat), University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The most pressing need in cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) is the creation of a biomaterial capable to tailor the complex extracellular matrix of the tissue. Despite the standardized used of polycaprolactone (PCL) for osteochondral scaffolds, the pronounced stiffness mismatch between PCL scaffold and the tissue it replaces remarks the biomechanical incompatibility as main limitation. To overcome it, the present work was focused in the design and analysis of several geometries and pore sizes and how they affect cell adhesion and proliferation of infrapatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stem cells (IPFP-MSCs) loaded in biofabricated 3D thermoplastic scaffolds. A novel biomaterial for CTE, the 1,4-butanediol thermoplastic polyurethane (b-TPUe) together PCL were studied to compare their mechanical properties. Three different geometrical patterns were included: hexagonal (H), square (S), and, triangular (T); each one was printed with three different pore sizes (PS): 1, 1.5 and 2 mm. Results showed differences in cell adhesion, cell proliferation and mechanical properties depending on the geometry, porosity and type of biomaterial used. Finally, the microstructure of the two optimal geometries (T1.5 and T2) was deeply analyzed using multiaxial mechanical tests, with and without perimeters, μCT for microstructure analysis, DNA quantification and degradation assays. In conclusion, our results evidenced that IPFP-MSCs-loaded b-TPUe scaffolds had higher similarity with cartilage mechanics and T1.5 was the best adapted morphology for CTE.