This article covers a high-risk time in a woman's life, the period just after delivery of her baby. There are large variations in complication rates across various groups in the United States. Many women seek care in the emergency department for routine and more serious postpartum pathologies. Emergency physicians should be well versed in common and life-threatening complications of delivery. The specific pathologies discussed in this article include lactation in the emergency department, postpartum hemorrhage, amniotic fluid embolism, endometritis, and mastitis.