OBJECTIVE : This study aims to provide a way to estimate the volume of the thyroid remnant and determine its relationship with the outcome of radioiodine (RAI) therapy in depth. METHODS : A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who underwent initial RAI therapy between January 2010 and January 2016. The patients were divided into five groups based on the thyroid remnant estimated by post-therapy whole-body scan(post-Rx WBS), thyroid scintigraphy and ultrasonography. The relationship between the volume of thyroid remnant and the outcome of RAI therapy were evaluated by univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. RESULTS : Of 703 patients, the majority could be found different size of thyroid remnants using the three imaging methods, and only few patients(2.1%) could reach no thyroid remnant. There was no association between the volume of thyroid remnant and the outcome of RAI therapy in univariate analysis (χ2 = 1.633, P = 0.652) and multivariate analysis (P > 0.05). In the subgroup of patients with high-risk factors, there was still no significant difference (intermediate risk subgroup: P = 0.338 vs high risk subgroup: P = 0.263). CONCLUSIONS : Different sizes of thyroid remnants were left after surgery. However, in high radioiodine activity, the volume of thyroid remnants may not affect the outcome of RAI therapy even in patients with some high-risk factors, so the high radioiodine activities may resolve the the problem caused by thyroid remnants in some cases.