Potential for mitigating global agricultural ammonia emission: A meta-analysis.

Affiliation

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Ammonia (NH3) emission from agricultural sources has contributed significantly to air pollution, soil acidification, water eutrophication, biodiversity loss, and declining human health. Although there are numerous strategies for reducing NH3 emission from agricultural systems, the effectiveness of these measures is highly variable. Furthermore, the integrated assessment of measures to reduce NH3 emission both from livestock production and cropping systems based on animal and crop type is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis and integrated assessment of measures to reduce NH3 emission from agricultural systems. Most of the studied mitigation strategies were effective in reducing NH3 emission. In the livestock production system, dietary additive, urease inhibitor (UI), manure acidification and deep manure placement have the highest mitigation potential relative to other mitigation strategies, with reduction ranges of 35.1-54.2%, 24.3-68.7%, 88.8-95.0%, and 93.8-99.7%, respectively, relative to the control, while manure storage management could significantly reduce NH3 emission by 70.0-82.1%. In the cropping system, fertilizer source, use of enhanced efficiency fertilizers, and method of field application are most effective for reducingNH3 emission. The use of ammonium nitrate, controlled release fertilizer (CRF), and deep placement of fertilizers could reduce NH3 emission by 88.3, 56.8, and 48.0%, respectively. Choosing a proper fertilizer is critical for decreasing NH3 emission from cropping systems. We conclude that carefully planned and adopted strategies suited for local conditions are promising for minimizing NH3 emission from agricultural systems on a global scale, while possible effects of those mitigation measures on the emission of greenhouse gases should be studied in the future.

Keywords

Agricultural system,Ammonia emission,Fertilizer source,Manure management,Meta-analysis,Reduction strategy,

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