Potential sources, influencing factors, and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface soil of urban parks in Beijing, China.

Affiliation

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Urban parks are an important part of the urban ecological environment. The environmental quality of parks is related to human health. To evaluate sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of urban parks and their possible health risks, soil samples from 122 parks in Beijing, China, were collected and analyzed. The total content of 16 PAHs between 0.066 and 6.867 mg/kg. Four-ring PAHs were predominant, followed by 5-ring PAHs, while the fraction of 2-ring PAHs was the lowest. The dominant PAHs sources were found to be coal combustion and oil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. A conditional inference tree (CIT) was used to identify the key influencing factors for PAHs. Traffic emissions was the most important factor, followed by coal consumption, as well as the history and location of the park. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for urban park soil in Beijing were low under normal conditions. The soil PAHs exposure pathway risk for both children and adults decreased in the following order: ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The risk from soil in parks to children's health is slightly higher than that of adults, although the health risk due to exposure to PAHs was not extraordinary. Ecosystem risk was negligible.

Keywords

CIT,Health risks,Influencing factors,PAHs,Sources,Urban parks,

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