Predicting the Prognosis of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy by Using Scheimpflug Tomography.

Affiliation

Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE : To determine if Scheimpflug tomography pachymetry map and posterior elevation map patterns, central corneal thickness (CCT), and corneal backscatter can predict the prognosis of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD).
METHODS : Cross-sectional study with follow-up of outcomes.
METHODS : Ninety-six eyes (56 subjects) with a range of severity of FECD.
METHODS : Corneas were graded by cornea specialists according to the area and confluence of guttae and the presence of clinically definite edema. Masked and randomized Scheimpflug imaging pachymetry map and posterior elevation map patterns were assessed by 1 observer for loss of regular isopachs, displacement of the thinnest point of the cornea, and the presence of posterior surface depression. The prognosis of eyes over a 5-year (median) follow-up period was determined based on FECD progression (new onset of clinically definite edema or ≥5% increase in CCT) or intervention by endothelial keratoplasty. Cumulative probabilities of progression and intervention were estimated from survival analyses, with risk factors determined by using Cox proportional hazards models.
METHODS : Pachymetry map and posterior elevation map patterns, corneal backscatter, and CCT (ultrasonic pachymetry).
RESULTS : In univariate analyses, loss of regular isopachs (hazard ratio [HR], 18.00) displacement of the thinnest point (HR, 11.53), focal posterior surface depression (HR, 10.21), and anterior corneal backscatter (HR, 1.22, per 1-grayscale unit increment), were risk factors for progression or intervention (P < 0.001), whereas CCT (HR, 1.30, per 25-μm increment) was not (P = 0.15). In multivariate analyses, loss of regular isopachs (HR, 11.57; P < 0.001) and displacement of the thinnest point (HR, 5.61; P = 0.02) were independent and clinically important risk factors for progression and intervention. The 5-year cumulative risk of disease progression and intervention was 7%, 48%, and 89% when none, 1 or 2, and all 3 pachymetry map and posterior elevation map parameters were present, respectively (P <0.001). The 4-year cumulative risk of disease progression and intervention after uncomplicated cataract surgery was 0%, 50%, and 75% when none, 1 or 2, and all 3 pachymetry map and posterior elevation map parameters were present, respectively (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS : Three Scheimpflug tomography pachymetry map and posterior elevation map patterns can predict FECD prognosis independent of CCT. The risk of FECD progression and intervention, including after uncomplicated cataract surgery, increases according to the number of parameters present.

OUR Recent Articles