Prediction of healing in Category I pressure ulcers by skin blotting with plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, interleukin-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor C, and heat shock protein 90α: A pilot study.


Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]


The prevention of progression of Category I pressure ulcers (PUs) to Category II or higher is important, as Category II or higher PUs are open wounds and have a higher infection risk. Prognosis prediction of Category I PUs is necessary to provide successful intensive care for PUs with impaired healing. We focused on skin blotting using plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), and heat shock protein 90α (HSP90α). This pilot study was conducted at long-term-care and general hospitals to examine the applicability of DESIGN-R and thermography; the feasibility of skin blotting technique; the biomarker candidates, PAI1, IL-1α, VEGF-C, and HSP90α; and sample size for prognosis prediction for Category I PUs. Patients aged >65 years underwent skin blotting, scoring for DESIGN-R, and took thermography images of their Category I PU site. Albumin signals were not detected in one out of three participants. PAI1, IL-1α, VEGF-C, and HSP90α were detected in 19 participants, among whom 11 participants could be followed up after one week. There was no difference in DESIGN-R score and skin surface temperature between normal and impaired healing groups, and the sample size was calculated as 16. In conclusion, the feasibility of skin blotting was confirmed. PAI1, IL-1α, VEGF-C, and HSP90α could be biomarker candidates for prognosis prediction for Category I PU and the combination of VEGF-C and HSP90α could be associated with the prognosis of Category I PU. We need to investigate 842 patients in a future study.


Category I pressure ulcer,Prognosis prediction,Skin blotting,

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