Predictive factors for long-term mortality in miscellaneous cardiogenic shock: Protective role of beta-blockers at admission.

Affiliation

Department of cardiology, Rangueil university hospital, 31059 Toulouse, France; Intensive cardiac care unit, Rangueil university hospital, 31059 Toulouse, France. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : Despite advances in intensive care medicine, management of cardiogenic shock (CS) remains difficult and imperfect, with high mortality rates, regardless of aetiology. Predictive data regarding long-term mortality rates in patients presenting CS are sparse.
OBJECTIVE : To describe prognostic factors for long-term mortality in CS of different aetiologies.
METHODS : Two hundred and seventy-five patients with CS admitted to our tertiary centre between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Mortality was recorded in December 2016. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine predictors of long-term mortality.
RESULTS : Most patients were male (72.7%), with an average age of 64±16 years and a history of cardiomyopathy (63.5%), mainly ischaemic (42.3%). Leading causes of CS were myocardial infarction (35.3%), decompensated heart failure (34.2%) and cardiac arrest (20.7%). Long-term mortality was 62.5%. After multivariable analysis, previous use of beta-blockers (hazard ratio [HR] 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.89; P=0.02) and coronary angiography exploration at admission (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38-0.86; P=0.02) were associated with a lower risk of long-term mortality. Conversely, age (HR 1.02 per year, 95% CI 1.01-1.04; P<0.001), catecholamine support (HR 1.45 for each additional agent, 95% CI 1.20-1.75; P<0.001) and renal replacement therapy (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.09-2.55; P=0.02) were associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality.
CONCLUSIONS : Long-term mortality rates in CS remain high, reaching 60% at 1-year follow-up. Previous use of beta-blockers and coronary angiography exploration at admission were associated with better long-term survival, while age, renal replacement therapy and the use of catecholamines appeared to worsen the prognosis, and should lead to intensification of CS management.

Keywords

Cardiogenic shock,Choc cardiogénique,Mortality,Mortalité,Prognosis,Pronostic,

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