Due to the strong absorption of water vapor at wavelengths of 1350-1420 nm and 1820-1940 nm, under normal atmospheric conditions, the actual digital number (DN) response curve of a hyperspectral imager deviates from the Gaussian shape, which leads to a decrease in the calibration accuracy of an instrument's spectral response functions (SRF). The higher the calibration uncertainty of SRF, the worse the retrieval accuracy of the spectral characteristics of the targets. In this paper, an improved spectral calibration method based on a monochromator and the spectral absorptive characteristics of water vapor in the laboratory is presented. The water vapor spectral calibration method (WVSCM) uses the difference function to calculate the intrinsic DN response functions of the spectral channels located in the absorptive wavelength range of water vapor and corrects the wavelength offset of the monochromator via the least-square procedure to achieve spectral calibration throughout the full spectral responsive range of the hyper-spectrometer. The absolute spectral calibration uncertainty is ±0.125 nm. We validated the effectiveness of the WVSCM with two tunable semiconductor lasers, and the spectral wavelength positions calibrated by lasers and the WVSCM showed a good degree of consistency.