BACKGROUND : The safety and oncologic outcomes of patients with advanced cirrhosis undergoing laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) compared to open resection (OLR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. METHODS : Patients with HCC resection during 2010-2014 were identified from the National Cancer Database. Patients with severe fibrosis; single lesions; M0; and known grade, margin status, tumor size, length of hospital stay, 30- and 90-day mortality, 30-day readmission, surgical approach, and complete follow-up were included. A 1:1 propensity score matching analysis of LLR:OLR was performed. Prognostic effect of LLR was assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS : A total of 1799 hepatectomy patients (minor (n = 491, 27.3%); major (n = 1308, 72.7%)) were included. Of 193 (10.7%) LLR patients, 190 were eligible for matching. The LLR vs OLR did not differ for patient characteristics, resection margin status, and 30-day (p = 0.141), 90-day mortality (p = 0.121), or 30-day readmission (p = 0.784). Median hospital stay was shorter for LLR (6 vs 8 days, p = 0.001). Median overall survival (OS) was similar for LLR vs OLR (44.2 and 39.5 months, respectively, p = 0.064). Predictors of worse OS were older age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.04, p = 0.034), > 2 comorbidities (HR 1.29, p = 0.012), grade 3-4 disease (HR 1.81, p = 0.025), N1 disease (HR 1.04, p = 0.048), and R1 margins (HR 1.34, p = 0.002). After adjustment for confounders, LLR vs OLR was not a significant risk factor for OS (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.76-1.71, p = 0.522). CONCLUSIONS : While LLR in advanced cirrhosis for patients with HCC proved safe, optimal patient selection based on the preoperatively available factors comorbidities, age, degree of underlying liver disease, and high-quality oncologic surgery will determine long-term survival.