Artemisia vulgaris is an economic plant that is spreading widely in central China. Its unused bast generates a large amount of biomass waste annually. Utilizing the fibers in Artemisia vulgaris bast may provide a new solution to this problem. This research attempts to strengthen the understanding of Artemisia vulgaris by analyzing its fiber compositions and preparing micro- and nano-cellulose fibers, which can be used as raw materials for composites. In this work, Artemisia vulgaris bast powder (AP) and microcellulose and nanocellulose fibers (AMFs and ANFs) were produced and characterized by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and bacteriostatic test. The results indicated that cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were the main components in the Artemisia vulgaris bast. The cellulose content reached 40.9%. The Artemisia vulgaris single fibers were microcellulose fibers with an average length of 850.6 μm and a diameter of 14.4 μm. Moreover, the AMF had considerable antibacterial ability with an antibacterial ratio of 36.6%. The ANF showed a length range of 250-300 nm and a diameter of 10-20 nm, and it had a higher crystallinity (76%) and a lower thermal stability (initial degradation temperature of 183 °C) compared with raw ANF (233 °C). This study provides fundamental information on Artemisia vulgaris bast cellulose for its subsequent utilization.